Freedom from Hunger is committed to sharing what we learn with the rest of the field. Our expert staff members are regularly called upon to contribute commentary, articles and chapters for trade publications, technical journals and books.

We are pleased to provide the following list of published works authored or co-authored by Freedom from Hunger staff, past and present. These articles are generally available for free download in PDF format or via links to other websites. In some cases, articles have been published by journals that provide access only by subscription or purchase.

The titles are listed according to the date of publication, starting with the most recent articles. We provide complete citation information for the convenience of researchers wanting to cite the publication in their own work and provide access to French or Spanish versions, when available.

We sincerely hope you will find these articles useful for broadening your understanding of value-added microfinance and related topics.

Building better lives: Sustainable integration of microfinance and education in child survival, reproductive health, and HIV/AIDS prevention for the poorest entrepreneurs.

Dunford, Christopher. Journal of Microfinance, 3 (2): 1–25. (2001). (English Only)

Get the article through Brigham Young University's ESR Review (link will open in a new window).


This paper provides diverse examples of microfinance institutions that have responded successfully to the challenge of integrating microfinance with non-financial services, without compromising the impacts or sustainability of their microfinance and overall operations.

Special attention is given to the integration of microfinance with health education for very poor women, including the promotion of family planning and HIV/AIDS prevention management. The credit and education components reinforce each other by addressing the informational as well as the economic obstacles to health and nutrition. There is good potential for large-scale, self-financing delivery of microfinance and education together in one efficient and effective service package. The key element is delivery of both services by one field staff. This requires management to make an extra commitment to staff recruitment, training, and supervision. Where operating grants are available to support non-financial services, management may prefer to employ two specialized field staffs to deliver the two types of service in parallel to the same clients.

Mali poverty outreach study of the Kafo Jiginew and Nyèsigiso Credit and Savings with Education Programs.

Nteziyaremye, Anastase and Barbara MkNelly. Freedom from Hunger Research Paper No. 7. 97pp. (May 2001). Davis, CA : Freedom from Hunger.

Credit with Education: A promising Title II microfinance strategy.

Dunford, Christopher and Vicki Denman. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANta) Project, Academy for Educational Development. 44pp. (March 2001). (English Only)

Get the article at Microfinance Gateway (link will open in a new window).


This paper introduces the reader to microfinance integrated with health and nutrition education as a promising strategy for Public Law 480 Title II (monetized food aid) practitioners. 

  • Section I of this paper provides an overview of how microfinance, particularly village banking, can contribute to the food-security objectives of Title II.
  • Section II describes a variant of village banking, called Credit with Education, which was designed for the specific purpose of achieving food- and nutrition-security objectives.
  • Section III reviews the available evidence that the Credit with Education model can be cost effectively implemented to improve household food security and child nutrition among large numbers of the food-insecure poor.
  • Section IV considers the opportunities and difficulties created when Credit with Education is introduced as a sustainable financial/educational service into the more familiar mix of Title II nonemergency development programming.

A business model for going down market: Combining village banking and credit unions.

Stack, Kathleen and Didier Thys. Microbanking Bulletin, 5: 9–12. (September 2000). (English Only)

Get the article at The Microbanking Bulletin (this link will open in a new window).


This paper investigates a business model for profitably serving the poorest segments of the microfinance market, along with some encouraging preliminary results. This article explores a creative way to break old paradigms in the quest to fulfill the dual objectives of outreach and sustainability.It presents the experience of Freedom From Hunger, an NGO that supports programs that combine micro-credit with low-cost, high-impact education sessions in nutrition, health and better business. It states that Freedom From Hunger's approach seeks to reduce delivery costs by partnering with credit unions in a number of countries. It argues that this allows the very poor to be served through an institution that already has a market presence, reduces delivery costs and enhances financial performance. It concludes that the poor are good business: "By redirecting financial services to the rural poor, credit unions can improve utilization and circulation of idle assets" working with the very poor provides opportunities to achieve important efficiencies.

Depth of Outreach: Incidental outcome or conscious policy choice?

Thys, Didier. Nexus, 43:7–11. (2000). (English Only)

Get the paper at Microfinance Gateway (link will open in a new window).

In search of “sound practices” for microfinance.

Dunford, Christopher. Journal of Microfinance, 2(1): 6–12 (Spring 2000). (English Only)

Get the article at Brigham Young University's Digital Collection (link will open in a new window).


The notion of “best practices” for all microfinance is challenged in favor of “sound practices” that are appropriate for particular organizational strategies and situations. A simple conceptual framework is offered to facilitate understanding of the current diversity of experiments with product-market pairs (e.g., group-based lending to poor women struggling to earn enough for family survival).

Since the microfinance movement is still in a mode of intensive learning, we should not presume too soon what will be “best” for all product-market pairs. We can expect to discover a somewhat different set of sound practices for each distinct product-market pair.

The Holy Grail of microfinance: “Helping the poor” and “sustainable”?

Dunford, Christopher. Small Enterprise Development. 11(1):40–44. (March 2000). (English Only)

You may purchase the article from the Small Enterprise Development via IngentaConnect(link will open in a new window).


The term "microfinance institutions" covers a broad spectrum from traditional businesses, for whom social objectives are only a by-product, to traditional social service organizations, for whom reaching the poorest is the prime objective.

In between are social enterprises, which are explicitly aiming at reaching very poor people (however defined) but at the same time are aiming at sustainability. This article takes the case of Freedom from Hunger’s Bolivian counterpart, CRECER, and shows how although CRECER is making substantial progress, its success in meeting both these objectives depends on how they are defined. For example, what proportion of better-off women is allowed among the target group of poor women? And should ‘sustainability’ include, as well as meeting operational and financial costs, repaying the original donor for their start-up investment? It is argued that most social enterprise MFIs cannot and should not attempt to do this but should aim to provide good-value services for poor people for a very long time.

Impact of Credit with Education on mothers and their young children’s nutrition: CRECER Credit with Education program in Bolivia.

MkNelly, Barbara and Christopher Dunford. Freedom from Hunger Research Paper No. 5. 122pp. (December 1999). Davis, CA : Freedom from Hunger.

Cost of education in the Freedom from Hunger version of Credit with Education.

Vor der Bruegge, Ellen, Joan E. Dickey and Christopher Dunford. Freedom from Hunger Research Paper No. 6. 7pp. (July 1997). Updated September 1999). Davis, CA: Freedom from Hunger.

Village banking dynamics study: Evidence from seven programs.

Painter, Judith and Barbara MkNelly. Journal of Microfinance, 1 (1):91–116. (Fall 1999). (English Only)

Get the article at Journal of Microfinance (link will open in a new window).


The primary question examined in this study is whether client loans grow or stagnate over time. Loan growth is important to financial sustainability and is also a proxy for positive impact. The relationship between loan growth and a variety of factors are explored in the context of seven village bank programs.

The study concludes that on average, loan size did not stagnant but increased steadily, although at a rate lower than the original village bank model projections. Only programs that allowed non-poverty level loans (loans above US$300) approached the original loan growth rate. Other factors positively associated with more rapid loan growth were urban site selection and restricted internal fund policies. Membership turnover—influx of new clients and drop-out of original clients—was also evident across all programs, dampening loan growth rates by approximately 25%. While factors external to the program affect these dynamics, program policies can play an important role in stemming the drop-out rate. In early loan cycles, initial program promotion and orientations need to clearly articulate program requirements and terms. In later loan cycles, policies pertaining to savings access, meeting frequency, and membership requirements may require flexing to enhance clients’ incentives to remain.